What Are the Signs of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Deficiency and How Can It Be Treated?

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. NAD is involved in many biochemical reactions, including energy production, cell signaling, and DNA repair. NAD levels decline with age, which is linked to age-related diseases. NAD deficiency is also linked to several chronic diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer’s. Keep reading to learn more.

What is NAD?


NAD is a dinucleotide molecule composed of two nucleotides joined by a phosphate group. The first nucleotide contains an adenine base and the second nicotinamide. NAD is produced from niacin, which is a water-soluble vitamin and an essential human nutrient classified as vitamin B3. The human body needs NAD to be involved in over 400 biochemical reactions, including energy production, DNA repair, and steroid hormone synthesis.

NAD is mainly used in two ways: As a substrate for enzymes, it’s involved in redox reactions. These reactions involve the transfer of electrons between molecules and are essential in many biochemical processes. As a coenzyme, NAD binds to proteins called NAD-dependent enzymes. These enzymes have specific tasks, such as regulating blood sugar levels or breaking down toxins.

There are many benefits of NAD. It can help to improve energy levels and endurance, enhance cognitive function, reduce inflammation, improve skin health, strengthen the immune system, and promote better sleep.

What are the signs of NAD deficiency?

A deficiency of NAD can lead to a wide range of health problems, including fatigue, weakness, weight loss, skin problems, and an increased risk of infection. There are several ways to test for NAD deficiency, including blood tests, urine tests, and gene sequencing. Treatment options include supplements such as nicotinamide riboside or nicotinamide mononucleotide, both of which increase levels of NAD in the body. Lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet can also help boost levels of NAD.

NAD deficiency has many potential signs and symptoms, as it can affect different body parts differently. Some of the most common signs include:

  • Unexplained fatigue or low energy
  • Problems with memory or concentration
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Mood swings or anxiety
  • Difficulty losing weight or maintaining a healthy weight
  • Poor circulation or cold hands and feet
  • Headaches
  • Skin problems, such as dryness, redness, or sensitivity
  • Joint pain
  • Sinus congestion
  • Digestive problems, such as constipation, diarrhea, or gas
  • Frequent infections
  • Low immunity
  • Persistent pain

If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, you’ll want to consult a healthcare professional to determine if you might be suffering from NAD deficiency.

What are the potential complications of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide deficiency?


NAD levels can be reduced by various factors, including aging, stress, and exposure to environmental toxins. When NAD levels are low, complications can occur.

One potential complication of NAD deficiency is impaired mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are organelles in cells that produce energy. When mitochondrial function is impaired, cells may not have enough energy to meet their needs, resulting in problems such as fatigue and muscle weakness.

Another potential complication of NAD deficiency is altered gene expression. Gene expression refers to the process by which genes are turned on or off to create proteins. When gene expression changes, it can lead to problems such as inflammation and tissue damage.

A third potential complication of NAD deficiency is changes in cellular metabolism. Cellular metabolism refers to the process by which cells break down food molecules to obtain energy. When cellular metabolism is disrupted, it can lead to problems such as weight gain or loss and an inability to tolerate glucose (sugar).

NAD deficiency is a severe condition that can lead to various health problems. It’s essential to be aware of the signs and symptoms of NAD deficiency and to seek treatment if you suspect you or your child may have the condition. Treatment options include supplements and lifestyle changes.